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السكك الحديدية فى العراق حتي نهاية الحرب العالمية الأولي

المصدر: آداب الرافدين
الناشر: جامعة الموصل - كلية الآداب
المؤلف الرئيسي: عبدالعزيز، لمي (مؤلف)
المجلد/العدد: ع 45
محكمة: نعم
الدولة: العراق
التاريخ الميلادي: 2007
التاريخ الهجري: 1428
الصفحات: 106 - 129
ISSN: 0378-2867
رقم MD: 418280
نوع المحتوى: بحوث ومقالات
قواعد المعلومات: AraBase
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المستخلص: لم تدخل مشاريع السكك الحديدية في العراق حيز التنفيذ إلا في أعقاب اندفاع ألمانيا نحو الشرق، وجهود الأخيرة للتوغل في جسم الدولة العثمانية من خلال إقامتها لشبكة من خطوط سكك الحديد والتي توجت بحصول ألمانيا على امتياز سكة حديد برلين -بغداد إلا أن اندلاع الحرب العالمية الأولى ودخول ألمانيا في هذه الحرب ومن ثم خسارتها لهذه الحرب حال دون استمرار ألمانيا في تنفيذ مثل هذه المشاريع. وباحتلال بريطانيا للعراق (1914-1918) دخلت سكك الحديد في العراق مرحلة جديدة إلا انه ومما يؤخذ على هذه المشاريع أن إنشاءها لم يكن يهدف إلى تطوير إمكانيات العراق الاقتصادية بقدر ما هدفت إلى تحقيق أهداف عسكرية واقتصادية لسلطات الاحتلال بدليل قيام الأخيرة باقتلاع الغالبية العظمى من هذه الخطوط حال انتفاء الحاجة إليها.

The railway has been used in land transportation and in the Othmani state since the 60's of the 19th century and specially in 1866, when the first railway was opened between Azmeer and lydeen cities and that was followed by building railways in different provinces (wilaya), in the Othmani state. The Syria province (wilaya) witnessed using of the first train when the railway: Yafa- AlQuds was opened in 1892. In Iraq, although the great number of projects and the studies of the railways which competed by the great states in supporting them, but these projects didn't come into use, for political, technical and finance considerations. Germany comes at the beginning of the great states which tried to penetrate inside the state during the project of the railway. Baghdad-Berlin railways was considered as an important project during building railway between Anadolia and Al-Basrah harbour at entrance of the Arab gulf, but the Germans succeeded to have this privilege with its final formula in March 1903, but this privilege faced many obstacles disrupted its carrying out. one of these obstacles was the British opposition to the project, which threatened the Germans arrival to the entrance of the Arab Gulf, and this threatened the British advantages in the area, and these problems were not settled until July 1914, the Germans started to carry out this project when the World War I started. The Germans achieved the extended part between Baghdad and Samarra at 80 mile, so the Iraqis did not get benefit from the transportation services by the railways. At the beginning of the British occupation to Iraq in 1914, British realized the necessity of building railways in Iraq to achieve many aims such as: supplying a flexibility in its forces movement, anus and foods, in addition to the easiness of spreading these forces in occupying other parts in Iraq for the Benefit of the British occupation, and so far the Building of these lines was not for the Iraqis, but to achieve martial aims for the British occupation, one of the evidences against them is that these forces took off these lines after finishing their martial aims.

ISSN: 0378-2867

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