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مؤشرات التشغيل الخاصة بأهداف التنمية للألفية كإطار لتحليل سوق العمل

العنوان بلغة أخرى: Employment Indicators of Millennium Development Goals as A Framework for Labour Market Analysis
المصدر: السكان : بحوث ودراسات
الناشر: الجهاز المركزي المصري للتعبئة العامة والإحصاء - مركز الأبحاث والدراسات السكانية
المؤلف الرئيسي: العشري، فاطمة محمد (مؤلف)
مؤلفين آخرين: سليمان، مديحة عبدالحليم (م. مشارك)
المجلد/العدد: ع88
محكمة: نعم
الدولة: مصر
التاريخ الميلادي: 2014
الشهر: يوليو
الصفحات: 1 - 24
رقم MD: 606486
نوع المحتوى: بحوث ومقالات
اللغة: العربية
قواعد المعلومات: EcoLink
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المستخلص: This study aims to analyze the labour market in Egypt through the five indicators of Millennium Development Goals. They are: 1- Growth rate of GDP per person employed, 2- employment-to-population ratio, 3- Percentage of employed people living below the poverty line, 4-Percentage of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment and 5-Share of wage employment for women in non-agriculture Employment, in addition to other indicators of the labor market. It is based primarily on the results of Labour Force Survey during the period (2000-2012), in addition to other sources. The Main findings: 1-The annual growth rate of GDP per worker (in constant prices) increased from 1.6% in 2002/2003 to 3.7% in 2005/ 2006, and decreased to 0.7% in 2008/2009, then increased to reach 4.4% in 2011/ 2012.The decline in growth rates of GDP per worker in some years may be due to the increase in inflation rate during these years which reduced the real value of the GDP. 2-The percentage of employed persons was about 41 % of the population in 2000, and it increased to reach 47 % in 2008, then decreased to about 42 % in 2012. This may be due to decline in the ratio as a result of January revolution. 3-The percentage of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment was 22.9% of the total employment in 2000, this percentage increased to reach 27.3 % in 2007, and then decreased again gradually to 21.9 % in 2012, reflecting the increase in the percentage of paid workers during that period, which increased from 58.5 % in 2007 to 62.5 % in 2010. 4-The percentage of employed people living below the poverty line increased from 18.8% in 2004/ 2005 to 21.2 % in 2008/ 2009 and then to 24.3% in 2010 /2011. The same pattern was observed in both urban and rural areas, but the percentage in rural areas was more than double the percentage in urban areas. 5-The share of wage employment for women in non-agriculture employment was about 19 % in 2000 and 2012, reflecting the low share of contribution of women in non-agriculture activities. 6-The unemployment rate increased from 9 of the total labor force in 2000 to 12.7 % in 2012 as a result of January revolution events. The unemployment rate among females was nearly three times of the rate among males during the period (2000-2012). 7-The unemployment rate among youth (15-29 years old) increased from about 24 % in 2000 to 27.7 % in 2012. 8-The unemployment rate was higher among the middle and university qualifications persons compared to those illiterate and less qualified persons during the period (2000-2012). 9-The percentage of farmers and workers in agriculture, fishing sector represented the largest proportion of workers. Excluding the year 2012, this percentage ranged between (27 % - 31 %) during the study years. The female contribution in the agriculture sector was much higher compared to males (38.3 % for females compared to 18.8 % for males in 2012). The other important sectors were the craft and related trades workers, for males was about fifth of the employed males in 2012, while professional’s females was representing a quarter of workers females in 2012. 10-The study presented some indicators for quality of the work for paid employees in 2012, they were as follows: 59.8% of them have a social insurance, 50.5% of them have a health insurance, 57.9% of them have a legal contract, and 27.2% of them participants in the unions (labor or professional) and 67.5 % of them have a permanent employment. These ratios were much higher among females than males and also between workers in government and public sector compared to the private sector, especially for those working outside establishments. Recommendations: 1-Link the education output to the demand side in the labor market. 2-Expansion of transformational training for graduates to match the requirements of the labor market 3-Expansion the small and micro enterprises to the new graduates of males and females. 4-Provide small loans from the Social Fund for those interested in all regions of Egypt. 5-Expansion the youth ownership of reclaimed agricultural land and provide training courses in agriculture and manufacturing production.